Bibliography: Democracy (page 589 of 596)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the I'm with Tulsi website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sixten Marklund, Andrei S. Markovits, Dayle A. Casey, Abraham F. Lowenthal, Patrick D. Lynch, Edward R. Beauchamp, Albert Fishlow, Martha Kransdorf, Washington Community Services Administration, and John S. Mikulaninec.

Lynch, Patrick D. (1985). Family, Culture and Achievement in the Primary Schools of Botswana. This paper traces the development of the educational system of Botswana, a small south African country of one million, emphasizing its democratic origins and customs, historical influences, social trends, and economic support. Changes in the educational system, especially in universal primary education, since its independence from Great Britain in l967 are discussed. Efforts to improve educational quality focus on reform of primary teaching methods, teacher preparation, and curriculum. Attempts to modernize the curriculum are also being made by the government, although the consequences for the traditional culture and pastoral economy of Botswana seem uncertain. Examined in the paper is the "two school culture" of Botswana, i.e., the rural, traditional, culture and the urban, modern culture. The author argues that the cultural differences between the rural and urban families are not so profound as in other countries; nevertheless, results reported from the 1982 primary school survey of 60 representative schools may indicate that school achievement reflects emerging differences between the two cultures. Descriptors: Achievement Rating, Achievement Tests, Democracy, Educational History

Beauchamp, Edward R. (1985). Japanese Education and the Development of Postwar Educational Policy, 1945-1985. This document chronicles major developments in post World War II Japanese educational policy. The focus is mainly on the way in which world events, social structure, religion, cultural values, and official policy initiatives influenced Japanese educational practices. Developments covered in the first period, from 1868 to 1945, began with the reforms of the Meiji period. The influence of World War II and the occupation of Japan are reviewed. Educational policies which followed World War II and the accompanying occupation of Japan, including goals of democratization, demilitarization, and decentralization of government power are described. The post-occupation period, from 1950 to 1960, saw the re-creation of a centralized education ministry, a closer integration of school boards into the local governmental structure, the expansion of educational opportunities, and the reinstitutionalization of moral education. These reforms are seen as further supporting the democratization of Japanese society. The expansion of education during the 1960's and 1970's stresses how the interests of industry and the wide consensus on the need for future economic development influenced educational policy. A major focus is the spread and improvement of higher education. Reforms which took place between 1978 and the present, the shrinking of the school age population, the increase in school drop-outs, the refusal of education syndrome, and the emergence of an international youth culture are described. An extensive bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Comparative Education, Cultural Traits, Democracy

Williamson, Bill (1979). Education, Social Structure and Development: A Comparative Analysis. The book examines the role of education in social and economic development. Seven chapters comprise the document. Chapter I examines the relation of education to socioeconomic development. Topics include rural-urban imbalance in education, relevance in curriculum, and ways in which the educational system legitimates equality or inequality. In Chapter II, the author identifies the social, economic, and political forces which operate in different national contexts. Topics include models of development, constraints on development, social stratification, advanced capitalist societies, dependent societies, and developed and underdeveloped socialist societies. Chapters III through VI present case studies of education in different nations. These chapters examine the capitalist societies of Great Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany; the state socialist societies of the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic; the dependent societies of Ghana and Tanzania; and the underdeveloped socialist societies of Cuba and China. Chapter VII presents conclusions and recommendations for further study. Some conclusions are that the form, content, and distribution of education reflect the distribution of power in society; education always reflects the compromises of politics; and educational change always follows from change in the distribution of power. Educational planning must acknowledge the nature of constraints which might prevent goals from being realized. Finally, planning requires a sophisticated understanding of how social structures mold education.  Descriptors: Books, Capitalism, Case Studies, Comparative Analysis

Minear, Lawrence (1966). Lincoln and Emancipation: A Man's Dialogue with His Times. Teacher and Student Manuals. Focusing on Abraham Lincoln and the emancipation of the Negro, this social studies unit explores the relationships among men and events, the qualities of leadership, and the nature of historical change. Lincoln's evolving views of the Negro are examined through (1) the historical context in which Lincoln's beliefs about Negroes took shape, (2) the developments in Lincoln's political life, from 1832 through 1861, which affected his beliefs about Negroes, (3) the various military, political, and diplomatic pressures exerted on Lincoln as President which made him either the captive or master of events, (4) the two Emancipation Proclamations and the relationship between principle and expediency, (5) the impact of the emancipation on Lincoln's understanding of the conduct and purposes of the war and the conditions of peace, and (6) Lincoln's views on reconstruction in relation to emancipation. Inlcuded are suggestions for further reading, maps, charts, and writings from the period which elucidate Lincoln's political milieu. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.]   [More]  Descriptors: Civil War (United States), Curriculum Guides, Democracy, Government Role

Lowenthal, Abraham F.; Fishlow, Albert (1979). Latin America's Emergence: Toward a U.S. Response. Headline Series 243. In order to provide a basis for improving United States policies toward Latin America in the 1980s, the document examines past U.S. policy and relations, evaluates recent U.S. approaches, and offers a reassessment of current U.S. interests in Latin America. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter I discusses social, economic, and political change in Latin America from the 1950s through the 1970s. Topics include the 1961 Alliance for Progress, the prosperity and integration of Latin America into the world economy, the trend away from democratic institutions, and the rejection of U.S. dominance. Chapter II compares the traditional view of U.S.-Latin America relations in terms of cultivating security and private economic interests with a new concept of U.S. interests.  Problems of massive immigration, advanced nuclear research in Latin American countries, growing economic interdependence, and authoritarian regimes are noted. Chapter III examines the policies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, and Carter. Chapter IV proposes a restructuring of the entire economic and political order on the basis of consistently applied liberal policies of a free market which serves the interests of weaker as well as stronger countries. Suggestions are offered for applying this approach to trade, finance, foreign investment, technology transfer, foreign investment, migration, and human rights. Methods for implementing free market policies are discussed in Chapter V. Discussion questions conclude the document. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Change Strategies, Democracy, Developing Nations

Greenberg, Polly (1992). Ideas That Work with Young Children. How to Institute Some Simple Democratic Practices Pertaining to Respect, Rights, Responsibilities, and Roots in Any Classroom (without Losing Your Leadership Position), Young Children. Discusses ingredients inherent in democratic, ethical, and moral character and practices and the ways in which early childhood caregivers and teachers can institute democratic practices in their classrooms with young children. Considers the uses of discipline in democratic child care and education. Descriptors: Child Caregivers, Classroom Techniques, Conflict Resolution, Day Care

Portzline, Donnell B., Ed. (1976). Teaching about Communism: A Resource Book. This resource book is part of a program that was designed to advance a comprehensive curriculum development program for West Virginia in the area of conflicting ideologies. The resource book for secondary social studies teachers and administrators is concerned with basic information and teaching materials pertaining to the evolution of communism and the development of the political and economic institutions in the United States. Its purpose is to help teachers develop appropriate units for their classes, not to impose an instructional program on them. The source book is applicable to any teacher interested in teaching about communism. The contents of the book reflect the cooperative work of the project consultants and teachers. The first five chapters consist of topical summary papers by the consultants: Marxism-Leninism; the Bolshevik Revolution and development of Soviet communism; world communism; the Soviet communist regime; and political and economic institutions of the United States. These chapters are intended for teacher background information, not as student reading. The concluding chapter, prepared by the cooperating teachers, lists instructional materials by sections organized according to the first five chapter topics. Each section recommends bibliographies, teaching concepts, key terms, classroom activities, discussion questions, and educational media materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Bibliographies, Class Activities, Communism, Democracy

Kransdorf, Martha (1987). Frances Eisenberg at Canoga Park High School, 1946: Prelude to McCarthyism in the Los Angeles Public Schools. Targeted by the "California Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Affairs" in 1946, Frances Eisenberg subsequently was dismissed from the Los Angeles Public School System after 20 years of teaching. In 1947, the "Tenney Committee" introduced eight bills in the California legislature to prevent the teaching of controversial subjects in elementary schools and to increase legislative control over textbooks. Eisenberg was charged with "indoctrinating with subversive ideologies" in the small rural agricultural community of Canoga Park, California. In spite of strong parental and student support, Eisenberg, a teacher of journalism and English and the faculty advisor for the school newspaper, became the target for suspicion and hostility during a period of nationalism. Known anti-Semites were called as witnesses against her as well as students who had never been in her classes. Although the board of education appointed a committee which investigated the charges and completely cleared her, she lost her position in 1954. During this period the superintendent of the Los Angeles Schools required teachers to read a booklet on Americanism and to sign a loyalty oath.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Civil Rights, Democracy, Due Process

Callan, Laurence Brian (1967). Changes in Perception of Selected Concepts That Accompany Differing Leadership Treatments. A study was made of effects of two different leadership treatments on perception of nonverbal stimuli relating to concepts of leaders, authority, and cohesion as measured by changes in the Semantic Differential Scale. Subjects (28 Yaqui Indian and Mexican-American members of the Neighborhood Youth Corps) were randomly assigned to an autocratic group, with closely specified tasks and goals and little interaction, or a democratic group, marked by emphasis on interaction among youth and with the leaders, with leadership evolving from the group. Stimuli consisted of color slides on ten concepts or roles (doctor, judge, nurse, and others) representing leaders, authority, and cohesion. Based on findings, it was concluded that perceptions of nonverbal stimuli can be changed following a leadership treatment, and that the democratic treatment is preferable. However, the experimental design and other circumstances created doubt whether leadership was the sole influence. (Included are the concept slides, test materials, seven tables, and a bibliography.) Descriptors: American Indians, Analysis of Variance, Behavior Change, Bibliographies

Marklund, Sixten (1980). The Democratization of Education in Sweden: A Unesco Case Study. No. 2. Trends within the educational system of Sweden which increase the existence and/or potential of democratization are examined in this monograph. The process of democratization is interpreted as referring to educational objectives such as equal opportunity, as well as to structural changes within the system which increase the likelihood that stated goals will be achieved. The document is presented in nine chapters. Chapter one introduces the scope of the study (elementary and secondary education, higher education, and adult/continuing education). Chapter two explains how the comprehensive school system was introduced and examines how students are channeled into different courses of study according to their interests and abilities after basic education is completed at age 16.  Chapters three and four focus on some of the problems of this differentiation process, including equal opportunities for both sexes, separation according to theoretical and/or practical orientation, changing a track after an extended period of time in one study program, and variation of standards among schools. Chapter five elaborates on extra provisions for underprivileged populations. Chapters six and seven examine the relationship between school and working life and analyze how parents, community groups, educators, and administrators can work together more cooperatively. Chapter eight investigates recurrent education. The final chapter summarizes preceeding chapters. Conclusions are that although some evidence is found of equalization of educational opportunities (i.e., the between-school differences in educational standards have been reduced and access to upper-secondary education has been increased), most advances toward a democratized education have come about as a result of measures taken to democratize Swedish society at large. Descriptors: Access to Education, Adult Education, Case Studies, Comparative Education

Markovits, Andrei S. (1976). Educational Reform and Class Cleavages in Social Democratic Regimes: The Case of Sweden. The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between the educational system of Sweden and its social class structure. The first section provides background information on Sweden's social democratic system which exhibits a strong tendency towards pragmatism, practicality, rationality, efficiency, competence, and educational planning. Section two focuses on changes in 1950 in the primary education system from the traditional two-tiered system to a nine-year comprehensive egalitarian system. Section III describes attempts of the secondary education system to play a modernizing role in society while initiating a smooth process of maximum student adaptation to an inherently unequal social system. Various realms and problems of post-secondary education, including educational structure, governmental role, industrial influence, American influence, decentralization, and faculty power are examined in sections IV and V. Curriculum and students are discussed in section VI, followed by a discussion of continuing education in section VII. In conclusion, Sweden's educational system is making strides towards increasing social justice and personal fulfillment through provision of appropriate educational opportunities for all students. Footnotes and extensive tables conclude the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Comparative Education, Democracy, Developed Nations

Casey, Dayle A. (1965). Liberty and Law: The Nature of Individual Rights. Teacher and Student Manuals. This social studies unit considers the nature and sources of the individual rights of American citizenship as well as the complexity of the federal system as it operates on the liberties of the individual and relates to state government. The unit is structured chronologically to indicate that the history of liberty is largely the history of legal procedures. It notes changes in the understanding of individual rights from early manifestations in England, through the 18th century American contributions in the Bill of Rights, to the Fourteenth Amendment. To further illuminate how legal processes affect the acquisition of human liberties, the 1963 "Gideon v. Wainwright" decision and the right to counsel are discussed. The right to trial by jury in federal court, the use of evidence without a warrant, and extensions of the right to counsel are then considered as examples of the part that the Supreme Court has played since the Twenties in the reaffirmation of civil liberties. Included are excerpts from relevant Supreme Court decisions, such as "Escobedo v. Illinois" and "Palko v. Connecticut." [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.]   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Constitutional History, Court Litigation

Mikulaninec, John S. (1980). Up From Suffrage: Canada. Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union annals; government decrees such as the War Time Elections Act (1917), the Military Voters Act (1917), and the Women's Minimum Wage Act (1935); records from activist organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the National Council of Women, the League for Women's Rights, and the Association of Women Property Owners; the Department of Labor; national and provincial records of women in public office; and court cases, including the "persons" case–a 1916 reversal of a British Common Law decision in 1876 that women were "persons in matters of pains and penalties but not in matters of rights or privileges." Findings from the overview of data from these and other sources indicated that womens' political and economic advancement during the period between the two world wars was determined largely by two factors. They were the conservative nature of the social milieu (and, in Quebec, the conservatism of the Catholic church) and forces generated in the economy (overall loss of jobs during the depression and a corresponding increase in outright discrimination against women whose search for employment was considered as tantamount to taking jobs away from men, token employment of women in many industries, and apparent economic advancement which disappeared in the face of inflation). The conclusion is that while social and economic development combined with the efforts of women to promote their own political and economic welfare led to real and significant political advances, they produced only illusory economic gains. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Civil Rights, Democracy, Economic Factors

Community Services Administration, Washington, DC. (1978). Citizen Participation. This booklet identifies citizen participation requirements for more than 300 federally assisted programs administered by 18 departments, agencies, and commissions. It has been published in response to the government's desire to assist citizens in learning how, when, and where to go to participate in and influence the governmental decisions which affect their lives, as well as to improve government efficiency at all levels. The booklet is also designed to assist state and local officials in understanding the mandated requirements for citizen participation by providing a summary of those requirements. Each federal program is listed by its authorizing agency; is designated by title and number assigned to it in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; contains a program description and describes the requirements for citizen participation. Agencies listed include: ACTION; Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, HEW, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Justice, Transportation, and Labor; Environmental Protection Agency; National Science Foundation, and others. Use of the Federal Register and consultation with the responsible agency are recommended. Also included are samples of frequently occurring problems and possible solutions for bringing about effective citizen participation, techniques and tools to enhance citizen involvement, plus suggestions for evaluating the process. A glossary and bibliography conclude the booklet. Descriptors: Administrative Policy, Advisory Committees, Bibliographies, Citizen Participation

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Social Studies Curriculum Study Committee. (1973). Politics and Power: The New Voter. Report of the Subcommittee on Political Science. The booklet contains political education materials drawn from Wisconsin state and Federal government legislation, newspaper articles, and publications from political interest groups and educational organizations. The main purpose of the document is to help educators design and implement political science and citizenship education programs in response to the lowering of the minimum voting age to 18. The document is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes attempts by Wisconsin educators to introduce high school students to civic skills, particularly voting procedures and objectives. Chapter II focuses on Wisconsin's Age of Majority Bill. The text of the law is followed by discussion of the law's implications. Chapter III reviews political education programs in several Wisconsin school districts. Chapter IV offers a check list of 23 criteria for program development. Chapter V presents a list of agencies, publishers, and materials dealing with political education. The final chapter discusses possible future directions of the Wisconsin State Social Studies Political Science Subcommittee. Descriptors: Citizenship Responsibility, Civics, Decision Making, Decision Making Skills

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